The -g option produces debugging information for debugging tools like GDB.
Deadlocks and race conditions are specific to parallel behaviour but parallel debuggers can help with memory issues too!
How can you check SIMD is used to enable performance and which loops were vectorized?
The -fopt-info-vec with GNU Compilers and -Rpass=vector with Arm Compiler for Linux will ask the compiler to report on vectorized loops. You can ask the compiler to specifically report which loop failed to vectorize with -fopt-info-vec-missed and -Rpass-missed=vector.